1. Thou shalt not round the bevel or the back.
2. Thou shalt not use jigs.
3. Thou shalt look at the scratch patterns in the metal.
4. Thou shalt use a bevel angle appropriate for the knife and task.
5. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors knife.
6. Thou shalt sharpen side to side.
7. Thou shalt use a grit progression and entire surface of the stone.
8. Thou shalt not let thy sharpening system become glazed over.
9. Thou shalt not advance to the next grit until the burr develops.
10. Thou shalt not insult thy neighbor by insisting on the absolute superiority of any technique or system.
 Rounding the bevel, or the back, is the most common mistake in sharpening. Though the knife may look ‘sharp’– ie. polished– it will not cut if the included angle becomes too obtuse. Even with careful stropping, eventually the knife will need to be reground and resharpened. A back bevel works fine as long as the included angle is within the desired angle. In practice, a small amount of rounding always occurs when sharpening and stropping: the goal should be to minimize it.
 Not relying on jigs will give you much more freedom, and speed, in sharpening a variety of tools. Many bookbinding knives do not fit it standard jigs, which are often designed for woodworking tools. The hand motions and muscle memory necessary to sharpen freehand is often very similar to the skills necessary to use the knife properly. Throw away your crutches and walk!
 Looking at the visual evidence of what you are doing when sharpening is paramount. Even slightly changing the angle of the knife when moving to a finer grit will show exactly what the new grit is doing. A 10 power magnifying lens is very revealing. Always sharpening in the same direction will disguise the effects of the new grit, often resulting in an unpleasant surprise when a final stropping reveals many deep scratches.
 Always use the lowest possible blade angle for the task at hand. For paring leather, this is around 13 degrees.
 Knives are very personal. You need your own, and get to know how to use and sharpen the particular angles it develops. Most people sharpen with small idiosyncratic deviations from a geometric ideal, and learn to work with these deviations in practice. A well made knife will last the rest of your career, don’t purchase or make an inferior one. In the bookbinding world, it is a major faux pas to borrow a colleague’s paring knife — don’t be a rube!
 It is much easier to maintain a consistent bevel sharpening side to side freehand (parallel to the cutting edge), rather than sharpening from the cutting edge to the start of the bevel. I have noticed this in student work as well as my own. This does necessitate a flat stone or sharpening surface, however. Of course, it is possible to sharpen in almost any direction, as long as you hand is comfortable and you are able to maintain a consistent angle.
 It is much faster and easier to have a series of small grit progressions, rather than one or two large ones. This also results in less wear per stone. Always buy the longest stone you can afford and use the entire surface of it — moving the blade 10 inches once is basically the same as moving the blade 2 inches, 5 times. Hogging the center will wear a stone unevenly.
 Always use a lubricant. A glazed system will generate heat and cut very slowly.
 Feeling, or looking for the burr lets you know that the two planes have exceeded the point where they meet. This assures you there are no flat (dull) areas on the cutting edge. With very fine grits it may not be possible to feel or see this.
 Almost any sharpening system can work, if you know what you are doing. I’ve seen people break every one of these commandments and still get a great edge.
RECOMMENDED SHARPENING RESOURCES
Hock, Ron. The Perfect Edge: The Ultimate Guide to Sharpening for Woodworkers. Cincinnati: Popular Woodworking Books, 2009.
Ron Hock’s brief sharpening notes
Lee, Leonard. The Complete Guide to Sharpening. Newtown, CT: The Taunton Press, 1995.
Maurice Fraser’s sharpening notes
Sugai, Chiharu. The Chef’s Edge: Traditional Hand-Sharpening Techniques for Japanese and Western-Style Yanagi Knives. (DVD) KORIN Japanese Trading Co., 2003.