Category Archives: tools

Do Tools Matter When Making Historic Book Structures?

I made this reproduction 18th century French wooden straightedge. Does using it to make a historic bookbinding model *really* affect the process or outcome? Am I heading down the road of wearing a faux French craftsman costume while I do this?

Skillful use of hand tools often depends on their embodiment. They literally become become extensions of our consciousness and body.  We think through them in use, not about them. Don Idhe’s example of driving a car is useful. We don’t have to pay conscious attention to where we are on the road. We just drive. The car is a complex tool that has become embodied. We constantly unconsciously adjust to keeping it on the road. In bookbinding, paring leather is a similar unconscious complex activity. If you are interested in this kind of thing,  Don Idhe’s Technology and The Lifeworld is a exceedingly readable philosophy of technology.

All craft activities have a greater or lesser degree of embodiment, it accounts for some of their joy, relaxation and pleasure. We get out of ourselves for a while.  People often remark on how a tool fits their hand, or is an extension of it, and that it disappears in use. And how time quickly disappears when engaged by using it.

In teaching historic bookbinding structures, however, that these ingrained habits can be counterproductive when trying to recreate, or at least understand in detail, the nuances of earlier techniques.  This is one reason for using historic and reproduction tools. They can help take us out of the familiar, and challange our ingrained craft skills.  They force us to rethink our relationship to a particular tool, and by extension our relationship with the object being crafted. It is all too easy to slip into 21st century work habits when trying to construct a 16th century Gothic binding.

Using historic tools may or may not be the easiest way to do a particular task. When conserving a book there are many other considerations, including the safety of the original artifact, so many historic tools and techniques are not appropriate. And of course, the skill, experience and ability of the conservator is a significant factor. But by in large, the traditional tools of hand bookbinding have not been mechanized because they are an efficient and accurate way of working.

Possibly the most important aspect of using historic tools, or reproductions, is they aid in interpreting historic techniques. Binding a book in an historic style, even inexpertly, helps us understand deeply how older books were made. And isn’t this type of knowledge at the core of any book conservation treatment?

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“Tree Down!”   Jeff Peachey, 2013.

“Start with the leaves, the small twigs, and the nests that have been shaken, ripped, or broken off by the fall; these must be gathered and attached once again to their respective places. It is not arduous work, unless major limbs have been smashed or mutilated. If the fall was carefully and correctly planned, the chances of anything of the kind happening will have been reduced. Again, much depends upon the size, age, shape, and species of the tree. Still, you will be lucky if you can get through this stages without having to use machinery. Even in the best of circumstances it is a labor that will make you wish often that you had won the favor of the universe of ants, the empire of mice, … .” (the rest of the poem)

W. S. Merwin’s “Unchopping a Tree” is a wonderfully meditative poem/essay that will resonate with anyone in craft, conservation, technology, or environmentalism. It articulates the hubris of humans when working with natural materials by emphasizing the complex and one-directional time-bound nature of growth and craft.

There is not a backspace key for craft. Only starting over, or more rarely, working around a mistake. A second of inattention can create hours or days of extra work when dealing with physical materials. Possibly even failure. Chopping is quick. Unchopping takes a long time.

We can all appreciate the section on the structural inappropriateness of trying to glue back the severed fibers of the tree, which will never function as the original. It is as futile as gluing a spinal cord nerve.

The poem ends by zeroing in on the insecurity at the heart of all art and craft. How can any human construct even begin to compare to Nature?

NEW! For Sale: Sharpening System 3

There are three major improvements to this Sharpening System: Delrin plates for easy removal of used finishing film, an upgraded tightening knob, and larger feet for added stability. I’ve tested this new system for over a year for all the knives I make. Verdict? Excellent, IMHO.

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Sharpening System 3. End view with Delrin plates.

First, and most importantly, the support plates for the microfinishing film are now made of Delrin instead of aluminum.  This makes it possible to easily peel off the worn finishing film without using solvents or a fair amount of elbow grease. It stays flat, and doesn’t dish out. The microfinishing film stays in place when in use. The Delrin plates are first machined, then hand lapped. They are 12″ long, 2″ wide, and 3/4″ thick.

 

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Sharpening System 3. Detail of the precision knob.

The second upgrade is to the adjustment knob.  Previously, it was simply tapped through the end of the stand, with a coarse thread.  The new adjustment knob is made from stainless steel, has a very fine pitch, threaded through a phosphor bronze bushing. There is virtually no backlash, and nothing to rust. The end of the threaded rod contains a rounded ball, which prevents torquing of the plate while tightening. I’ll be the first to confess that this optical grade adjuster is not absolutely necessary, but, man, it is nice! Like a manual focus Leica lens.

Precise and accurate tools help perform precise and accurate work. At least, his is how I rationalize expensive tools… .

Lastly, in order to make the stand a bit more stable, the hard rubber feet are now one inch wide, with a flatter profile, giving more anti-slip contact with your bench. They can also adjust a bit to level.

This Sharpening System is a quick and convenient way to sharpen,  resharpen and keep all your knives and edge tools in peak condition, from scalpels to scimitars, plane blades to plough blades. This is a lightweight, easy to store and unbreakable system. Perfect for travel and classroom use, since there are no expensive stones to dish out, glaze over, or break.

The 3M finishing film cuts all modern high tech steels quickly and evenly. Replacement 80 micron film is available from Rio Grande; the 40, 15 and 5 micron from Tools for Working Wood.

 

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The system contains everything you need: a sharpening stand, two Delrin plates, four 11 x 2″ strips each of 80, 40, 15 and 5 micron 3M PSA micro finishing film, a 12 x 2″  Genuine Horsebutt Strop, and 1 oz. bar of green chromium oxide honing compound.

SHARPENING SYSTEM 3:  $285.00      Order here

How to Rejuvenate a Glazed-over Oil Stone

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Emanuel E. Ericson and Walter E. Burton Carborundum Brand Products for the Home Craftsman. The Carborundum Company: Niagara Falls, NY, 1935. My Collection.

In 1935, the Carborundum Company published a 93 page pamphlet of surprisingly useful tips and assorted product information. It also has a beautiful cover which typographically and color-wise captures the mid-1930’s aesthetic. Carborundum is Silicone Carbide (SiC), the material many (all?) synthetic oil stones are made of, and the coating on many abrasive papers. The pamphlet cost 20 cents in 1937, according to an advertisement in Popular Mechanics.

The next time I purchase an old glazed over oil stone at a flea market, I’ll try the tip below to clean it, which involves heating it to drive out the old oil and swarth.

It also contains good advice concerning the habit keeping tools sharp. Get into the habit and become “cranky”!

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Emanuel E. Ericson and Walter E. Burton  Carborundum Brand Products for the Home Craftsman. The Carborundum Company: Niagara Falls, NY, 1935.

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Tools: Friend or Foe?

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Tools and Their Use. Related Training for HEP Electrical and Mechanical Apprentice. Department of Water Resources, ca. 1940-50. Source: http://www.water.ca.gov/apprenticetraining/position/Tools%20&%20Their%20Use.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cady Automatic Hand Micrometer

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I would have to rank the Cady Automatic Hand Micrometer as one of the most beautiful and well made tools I own.  The E.J. Cady company is still in business, making this exact model which looks like it has not changed in design or construction since the 1950’s. It would not be out of place on the dashboard of a Bentley.

Like most people, I have a number of dial micrometers, or dial thickness gauges as they are sometimes called.  A deep throat Calati is perfect for measuring in the center of large sheets of paper. A super accurate Ames #2 (.0001″) with a 6oz. weight on top is great for obtaining standardized results with slightly compressible material, like leather. A portable, hand held Mitutoyo is small and lightweight, perfect for taking on the road.

Since I only use micrometers these a couple of times a year, the batteries in the digital ones always seemed to be dead. The digital versions are handy, though, if you use them a lot, or need to easily convert between English and Metric systems. The mechanically geared hand on the dial face has a definite nostalgic attraction for me, like the VU meters on a stereo amplifier.

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Meet the Family. Left: Calati, Middle: Ames, Right: Mitutoyo

 

An Ugly Hunk

Image: Ref 1996.8.1

Any guesses what is pictured in the above image?

I’m really happy museums are collecting this kind of thing.

It is from the Maritime Heritage East, and it is a hunk of beeswax that sailors waxed their whipping cord with, much like traditional bookbinders do with sewing thread. Looking at this, I can see how someone pulled the thread through it, likely holding it in one hand between their thumb and forefinger and rotating it 90 degrees occasionally to prevent the thread from cutting through. In fact, the museum notes that Harold Scot, an orphan sailer, received this wax in 1933 when he was 16, and used it for the next 66 years. It is unusual to have this type of provenance concerning tools and craft materials.

So what? Why does this ugly hunk of beeswax matter? Because here we have a physical record of technique, seemingly frozen in time. We can interpret the technique from this object, and it is an interesting object because it is a material that acts like a tool. The thread is shaped the wax, somewhat like a potter’s rib shapes clay. It is difficult to know, from this isolated example, if this was a common technique or waxing thread, a local custom, or possibly novel.  It would be interesting to compare other examples of beeswax, possibly from other trades. Was this hand sized square of wax a common size?

We do know that using beeswax to prevent kinking and reducing abrasion of sewing thread was common in many trades, including bookbinding. Yet materials like this are not commonly passed on when a bindery is sold. The use of beeswax seems to be waning, because of concerns about acidity and the fact it is not really necessary if the needle is the right size, and the thread properly relaxed. In fact, the sewing thread of most early bindings I’ve examined does not seem to be waxed.

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Image: <http://www.achildsdream.com/sewing-beeswax-in-holder/&gt;

A 20th century “innovation” in beeswax is the plastic holder pictured above, which is marketed to bookbinders and other sewing related crafts and even sold at Walmart. I suspect that one motive was to sell more tiny disks of beeswax, and the holder encourages waste because only part of the wax can be used. To be fair, the holder does keep the beeswax and the workers hands clean. But unless you are very careful, it is easy to abrade the thread on the sharp plastic edges, in contrast to the advertising claim that this device “strengthens” the thread. What does the holder, with its regulated placement of the thread imply about the marketing and deskilling technique in modern craft? Is the holder akin to training wheels?

Since the history of craft technique is generally unwritten, it is the responsibility of craft practitioners and conservators to interpret—or at least preserve and draw awareness—to these physical traces of past technique.