A Craftsman Reads “Craeft”

The idiosyncratic spelling of “Craft” is intended to reference the earlier Anglo-Saxon conception of craft. The 2018 American edition is titled “Craeft: An Inquiry into the Origins and True Meaning of Traditional Crafts” The 2017 English edition is titled “Craeft: How Traditional Crafts Are About More Than Just Making” Does the publisher think Americans like the “true meaning” of crafts? And the English assume craft is just about making stuff?

Book Review. Alexander Langlands, Craeft: An Inquiry into the Origins and True Meaning of Traditional Crafts. New York: W.W. Norton, 2018.

People working in craft often have philosophic inclinations. We work outside of mainstream society. We make objects that are not strictly necessary anymore. Combine this with long hours working alone, extremely repetitive hand work which affects the rhythm of our thoughts, getting lost in archaic techniques, and it only seems natural existential questions arise. What am I doing?  Why am I doing this? (and the annoying corollary, why am I doing this for so little money) Does it matter? Is craft in the 21st century anything more than a marketing term for a new cider? As partial compensation, I habitually buy most new books on the philosophy of craft, which means I must be looking for some new insight or different perspective.

With a few significant exceptions, the history of craft is recorded by writers and artists who described the actions of a craftsmen, but were not experts in the fields they described. Alexander Langland continues in this tradition. “I’m no craftsman” he announces near the end of his book. (297)  He does consider himself a “jack-of-all trades, master of none”, though. There is an almost universal prohibition against attempting to learn too many trades in most languages and cultures on earth. But why? Most people I know who are good with their hands are adept at a number of crafts. Is mastering a craft a different category altogether?

Langlands writes with a poetic sensitivity detailing the activity of handwork which renders the fact he is not a professional craftsman irrelevant. I became completely absorbed in his descriptions of hand work. David Esterly’s Lost Carvings (my review here) may have been the model for this style of craft writing: you feel you are inside a craftsman’s head, thinking what he is thinking while he moves his hands and tools. Esterly is a master craftsman writing about his own long years of carving. Langlands admits he is good at talking about it. (297)

Over a dozen crafts are described in Langlands book. Descriptions of performing a craft can sometimes go on for pages, and could have easily become inconsequential and dull. With Langlands firm narrative, however, they are engaging and even exciting. For example, the chapter on making a thatch roof is almost pornographic in detail; from sharpening the scythe, selecting the stubble thatch, twisting the thatch, augering the rafter peg holes, pegging it with a square greenwood trenail, driving the spars, and more. After reading, I felt exhausted and relieved to get off the roof and have the day’s work finished.

Each chapter has a similar recipe. He starts by placing a particular craft in a historical context, mixes in a bit of etymology, describes the importance of the materials, then narrates his own experimental recreation. His background as an archaeologist and British television personality (The Victorian Farm, The Edwardian Farm, Wartime Farm) serve him well in presenting the information in an engaging and readable manor. The chapter on weaving and hurtle fence making, for example, is exemplary: he unites these two disparate appearing crafts through a fundamental commonality of warp and weft. All the while he emphasizes the respect he has for the abilities of earlier craftsmen.

Though the book is filled with interesting factoids — who knew that the tines of traditional wooden French pitchforks are made out of trained branches! — the real value is in Langlands’ underlying conception of craft, “… a vehicle through which we can think, through when we can contemplate, and through which we can be.” (343)  He continues a philosophy of craft born in the arts and crafts movement, then overlaid with a bit of Richard Sennett (The Craftsman, my review here), David Pye (Nature and Art of Workmanship), and Howard Risatti (Theory of Craft). Another great strength of this book is the explication what he feels is the “craeft” way of knowing: evaluating and sourcing raw materials, working within constraints of cost and time, using your hands, and working towards a specific means. Craft, to Langlands, is not just a final product, but the sum total of the involvement in the process by the craftsman with the environment. Is this just a slight variation of farm-to-table cooking applied to objects?

For all of practical and engaging description, and his extensive experimentation, he has a romanticized view of craft, likely because he is an amateur.  “Perhaps harshly, I would not consider a topiarist who uses electric hedge trimmers a true craftsman on the simple grounds that the tool mutes their level of engagement with the material properties of the entity they are working.” (36) Attitudes toward work — even for a real craftsman —  change quite a bit when doing something day after day, month after month, year after year, decade after decade. Pecuniary pressures can also negatively impact a craftsman’s enjoyment of work. David Pye would also take issue with this statement, though on the grounds that an electric hedge trimmer takes a great deal of hand skill to operate, and the source of the power is irrelevant.

Langlands pays little attention paid to how craft skills are passed on or inherited. For all of his emphasis on craft as a integrated system and way of thinking, this is a significant omission. When discussing a Viking longship, he theorizes “It’s a craft that relies on building something relative to the materials employed… allowing the materials to speak for themselves, to answer back, to tell you what the natural shape must be…” (333) This sounds more something you would hear from an exercise guru or in a Monty Python skit, not the way a craftsman would think about constructing a ship in the ninth century. “Thor, let the keel timber be what it wants to be!”

There are several chapters where he describes the actions of a skilled craftsman, but he does not investigate the transmission of knowledge. Re-enactment, etymological history, and the study of extant artifacts are his primary methods of inquiry. But this was is not how craft was taught and transmitted for most of human history.

At the risk of coming across as a mystic, but I do believe Craft (with a capital “C”) resides outside of objects. Craft objects are the result of Craft. Learning or experiencing this way of thinking is traditionally taught through close contact with skilled practitioners. But I also think you can get there on your own, it just takes a lot more time. Before the nineteenth century this took place in apprenticeships; now it is more commonly acquired during internships. The transmission of craft knowledge is an important part of the entire craft ecosystem.

Craftsmanship in the Executive Suite

Last weekend, when checking out at the supermarket, I impulsively purchased a DVD of  Executive Suite.  This 1953 drama, directed by Robert Wise (The Sound of Music) stars William Holden, June Allyson, Barbara Stanwyck, Fredric March, Walter Pidgeon, Shelly Winters, and more. In addition to being a fantastic film, one of the central themes is craftsmanship.

The movie begins with a subjective camera, from the point of view of corporate president Arthur Bullard. Within the first minute he dies, and the rest of the film details the political maneuverings of the other board members, as they  backstab, blackmail and bribe each other in an attempt to gain control of the company. In the final scene William Holden’s character, an idealistic VP of manufacturing — a man with a heart and integrity —  battles controller Fredric Marsh, a number crunching opportunist who is only concerned with the bottom line.  This is a Hollywood movie and I’m not spoiling the plot by revealing that in the end William Holden (the good guy) wins the new directorship.

This is in stark contrast to the real world, where the bad guys seem to have won: the bottom line rules, the S&L scandal, the Wall Street bailout, the virtual disapperance of US manufacturing.  Many are fearful, feeling we have sold everything of worth, and are warry of an unsustainable future. Idealism and honest work, work that feels meaningful, produces something of worth and quality is on the wane. Even mentioning these sentiments can invoke ridicule at being naive. Of course, many may object why it is the elite board of directors that are debating (and ursurping) these issues rather than the workers themselves, but craftsmen began to loose control of their work, philosophically and pragmatically, long ago, perhaps as early as rules and regulations around trade developed.

In the climatic scene, Holden tears the leg off a chair to demonstrate that poor craftsmanship is cheating our essential drive; to do good work and take pride in it. He challanges us to examine our work life. Do you make something you would be proud to put your name on?  Do you want the dividends report on your tombtone? What involves your attention, interest and devotion? What do you love?  Just a paycheck?  Is this all there is?  What is the alternative?

Craftsmanship, he suggests.  Honest, engaged, thoughtful, skilled craftmanship.  Making something of worth and value the best we are able to. And this is why many of us, myself included, were originally attracted to the idea of craft.  In the early 21st century, many turn to craft, often after pursuing another occupation or profession which proves unfulfilling.  The relationship between conservation and craft (or art and craft, for that matter) is a woefully unexplored, complex topic that deserves much attention. Many have a hope that a life in craft will satisfy something. Why is this skilful manipulation of our physical environment, using tools, so deeply satisfying to so many of us?  And why do so many craftsmen view financial success as virtually incompatible with integrity in craft? I suspect the answers — if any —  may lie in the results of crafting.

Craft is always a battle. External and internal pressures often threaten to crush the soul of craftsman, but this film inspires by exuding the virtues of true craftsmanship, through the medium and the message.