Tag Archives: book conservation education

2018 Historical Book Structures Practicum: Demonstrating, Draw Knives, and Paring Tawed Skins

I recently finished teaching a month long workshop on historic bindings for the Library and Archives Conservation Education Consortium of Buffalo State University, New York University, and the Winterthur/ University of Delaware. LACE for short. Seven MA students in conservation completed six historic models from the 15th to the 20th centuries.

This year it was hosted by The Winterthur/ University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation and took place in the first year student classroom, which is a really great space to teach in. The room has individual work stations for the students, as well as a group area with moveable work tables for lectures, ppt’s, discussion, and demonstrations.

One configuration of the classroom.

It is important that the students can be comfortable and close enough to observe details during demonstrations. In this configuration, students could sit to watch and take notes, and I could stand, which is how I like to work. Having a task light would have made it ideal.

Edge of a bookblock cut with a drawknife. Photo Nicole Alvarado.

For our late Gothic model, some of the students wanted to try out a drawknife instead of a plough for edge cutting. Nicole Alvarado worked the edge in the above image. We found it quite difficult it is to achieve an edge that looked like historic examples. We had to start with the sides of the bookblock in order to shave it down. The resulting edges did not look like the example depicted in Fig. 9.14 from J.A. Szirmai’s The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding or on a first first folio of Shakespeare.

The edges on the Shakespeare and in Szirmai were presumably cut with a skewed and sliding stroke of a drawknife, with one stroke at a time advancing a significant amount through the book. It is easy to imagine this when looking at the images. We found it impossible to replicate this, though. Was our drawknife too small, the blade angle too obtuse, modern paper too hard, or our arms too weak?  A combination of all of these? Or was a different tool used? In both of these examples, each chop could have been caused by an aze or adze, in order to penetrate so far through the thickness of the bookblock. Time for more experimentation!

Paring and scraping a tawed skin with a round knife. Photo Karissa Muratore.

In bookbinding, usually vegetable tanned goat is the easiest leather to pare, followed by vegetable tanned calf, then tawed goat or calf. Tawed pig the most difficult. Tawed skins are quite abrasive, and quickly dull any knife. Karissa Muratore did a wonderful job of paring an alum tawed calfskin for her Gothic Model binding. Although tawed pigskin would have been traditional, all of the major bookbinding leather producers are no longer offering them, citing difficulty in obtaining quality raw skins.

Karissa’s image illustrates how a rounded blade knife can be used for edge paring (note the pieces in the foreground) and scraping (note the shavings in the background). Scraping is a safe, but slow way to even a skin out, as well as thin the spine and headcap area. I think that 15th century binders would have received the skins the appropriate thickness overall from the tanner, and only had to edge pare.

This late Gothic binding — clasps, alum tawed skin, wooden boards, double cord sewing —  is a satisfying final project, combining bookbinding, woodworking and metalworking skills.

By the end of the month, the students were more than happy to demonstrate what they learned about safe, professional, and thoughtful tool use.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Christopher Clarkson on Conservation Education

I could write a number of posts just introducing Christopher Clarkson. This is the very,very short version. He graduated from the Royal College of Art, London, then worked for S. M. Cockerell, and Roger Powell. In 1966 he was sent to Florence after the flood & taught in Italy and England till 1971. In 1972 Clarkson moved to the Library of Congress, concentrating in Special Collections. In 1977 Clarkson moved to The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore to set up a book conservation studio, he also helped Dr. Lilian Randall, adding many of the parchment & binding descriptions  to her great manuscript catalogue. He returned to England in 1979 as the first Conservation Officer at The Bodleian Library Oxford. Concerned about training, in 1987 Clarkson moved to West Dean College, where he ran an internship programme & worked on many medieval manuscripts. Most recently Clarkson has reported on the early 5th century Ms. Syriac 30 & the ‘New Finds’ of Codex Sinaiticus for the Monastery of St. Catherine’s. Currently he is conservation consultant to Hereford Cathedral Chained Library & Mappa Mundi, The Bodleian Library & to The Wordsworth Trust.

Quite likely, he has done more to create awareness of traditional materials, research the context of older structures, and impart sensitivity to treatments than any other book conservator.  And he generously shares this knowledge through teaching and in publications. Many of his articles form the foundations of the field. In July, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from The University of Arts London. Chris describes that he “was given two minutes for a speech in which he wanted to try to heighten the profile of conservation within the University also to stress why an art school system is probably still right for the  subject.”

Like most of his writing, the speech below is quite dense and warrants reflection.

…..

CLARKSON’S HONORARY DOCTORATE SPEECH

“It is a great pleasure to be back amongst art school people. I started at Camberwell School of Art in the 1950’s when I was thirteen, when it was still very much academic & Arts & Crafts based. The observational, painting techniques & graphic printing skills I learnt there have been essential in my later career as a conservator.

Conservation is a subject that bridges many disciplines – history, chemistry, engineering, material science etc. Possibly because of this, specific educational committees have said, “this is not ours” & passed it on to other committees. Above everything, it is a discipline which requires a high level of visual & craft skills plus ‘historical awareness’, my phrase, meant to express a deeper knowledge, sympathy & thus respect for the integrity of a period artefact. The danger in poor restoration/conservation training is ‘facsimile’ – the misconception that past cultures & their artefacts can be recreated – they cannot.

What I have tried to develop and teach are the principles of conservation as applied to period book structures, the diversity and the unexpected is what I am trying to preserve. This means teaching a wide and ever growing variety of techniques, utilizing a wide variety of materials and treatments out of which imaginative and historically sensitive young people can begin to find the answers to the problems that damaged books will present.

I am very interested in the choices conservators make in their treatments and how these decisions may influence our interpretation of an object. Thus observational skills are central to any conservation programme, I mean traditional drawing skills – to train the eye is to train the mind.

Conservation belongs in the Humanities, which are suffering badly in the present educational climate. I do hope the University can continue to support, & if possible broaden its commitment to its conservation course. It is a resource intensive discipline, expensive in time, training & quality materials, tools & equipment; a high percentage of bench-work is essential.

There has never been a greater need for well-trained conservators who not only know the techniques but also the cultural significance of what they will be working on. The support that the University gives to such courses is of enormous value.

I would like to congratulate all the students receiving their degrees today & wish you a bright & interesting future.

To the University I thank you for the honour you bestow on me.”

-Christopher Clarkson, 16 July 2012

Letter From a Young Bookbinder Who Maybe Needed More Discouragement

Jen Johnson sent me this letter, in response to last weeks blog post, “letter to a young bookbinder”.  I felt she summed up her experiences thus far quite well, and also hints at some of the larger questions facing the field as a whole.  It is interesting for me — exactly a mid-carrear conservator, 43 years old, 22 years in the field —  to hear from someone at the beginning. Some of the questions are still the same.  She also thought it might be of interest to others to hear her story.  Emerging Conservation Professionals Network (ECPN) is a blog and resource worth checking out for those considering or entering the field.  Jen is a self described “Bookbinder, Pre-program Conservation Optimist.”  Jen writes:
 
“Dear Jeff,
 
I read your recent blog post regarding the dissuasion of eager, and optimistic young binders from entering bookbinding and conservation fields. In light of the upcoming AIC panel discussion,  “Models for Educating Library and Archives Conservators”  I thought you may be interested in briefly hearing about my experience as it pertains to this topic, as you have been tangentially involved.
 
You may not recall, but we met briefly during the 2008 AIC conference in Denver. You joined the three of us for a drink during one of the evenings, and at some point in the conversation we discussed the pros and cons of being apprentice trained, versus program trained. At the time, I had been considering conservation school, but was still employed as a technician, and looking for a way to move up the ranks. In summary of our discussion, I believe you supported the idea of attending a conservation training program, in particular because the two main programs at Buffalo and Winterthur, were well funded, and it seemed the opportunities for less formal, and less available apprenticeship models were waning. You were not the only conservator I spoke with during the conference who shared this view. While not exactly encouraging, I did not get the sense of any warning regarding attempts to enter the field.
 
Needless to say, I was not discouraged, and upon returning from the conference I began plans to prepare to apply to conservation schools. I left my technician position in order to take pre-program chemistry, and some other minor coursework. I took unpaid internships. I paid visits to museums, conservators, book repair facilities, sent emails, asked questions and did my homework in the process. I would hardly say I was naïve to the difficulties of entering the field.
 
The work paid off. I was invited to interview by both schools to which I had applied. I shelled out for airfare, hotel fees, and additional expenses. I was ultimately accepted by the Winterthur program, which I felt was a great accomplishment my first time out.  Then, following years without full income, debt accrued from coursework, and the fact that I have a four-year old son to care for (to be fair this was what did me in) I had to turn Winterthur down, because I couldn’t afford to go.
 
Now, I am not sharing this with you as an embittered student, chewed up by the realities of the field. Truthfully, I would have liked a better outcome (I am expressing this very mildly), but I am expecting that I will have one next year when I reapply. Oh yes, I am not done yet. What I wanted to say was that, I think there are still those of us out there, who know the realities, who understand the profession (at least as much as one can from the outskirts) and who are as yet, undaunted.
 
I am so pleased to see this panel discussion on the agenda for this year’s meeting. I feel like the conservators I have come in contact with have gone to every length possible to portray the profession honestly, and also to support those of us who, for whatever reason, insist that we still belong there. I hope that AIC and conservators such as yourself can continue to support emerging conservators. It is an elite field to be sure, and not for the feint of heart, but perhaps that is what makes it so fascinating and special for those of us who want to get in the door.
 
During my interview at Winterthur I heard someone make a comment about the applicants, and that these people don’t have back up plans. I think that’s true, most of us don’t. Still unlike other professions involving intense commitment for the promise of success, one can wind up failing at pretty much anything, and in this economy who really knows where the pitfalls lie? At least bookbinders pursue their trade with the knowledge that it’s going to be hard, and there will never be enough money to compensate one’s education, efforts and skill. We do it anyway.
 
I will not be in attendance at this year’s conference because I cannot afford it. I imagine a lot of the folks that are the subject of this panel’s discussion will not be in attendance for similar reasons. This is why I wanted to share this in response to your post. I am really looking forward to hearing the discussion through your blog, and while I have no doubt my story is a common one, you are welcome to share it as part of your discussions. This is what is going on for those of us out here waiting in the wings. Thanks so much for participating in this discussion and helping to promote the issue on our behalf.
 
I appreciate your taking the time to read my response. I hope to see you in the field in the next few years.
 
Sincerely,
 
Jen Hunt Johnson
Bookbinder, Pre-program Conservation Optimist
jen (at) redletterbindery (dot) com”

Letter to a Young Bookbinder, 1889: Don’t Go Into This Trade!

 The British bookmaker, Vol. 3, 1889  (p. 185)

It is odd to be in a field that has such a long history of not just pessimism, but an impending sense that the entire trade is nearing death. But this must be tempered with the knowledge that this has continued for at least 120 years, and likely much longer.  A long, slow death, indeed.  So when I attempt to dissuade a young, would be book conservator from entering the field, perhaps I am just continuing this somewhat old tradition.  Or maybe it is an established method to keep the field populated by those who are passionate, determined, cantankerous, and foolhardy enough not to be deterred by its eternally gloomy future.

***

Next week, at the annual AIC conference, I’ll be guest blogging for AIC, covering the panel discussion,  “Models for Educating Library and Archives Conservators”.  Hopefully it will prove to be a lively and provocative session – at least my questions will be!  Most of the presentations at the conference will be covered by various bloggers on the new AIC Blog.

Description of the session:

This session, “Models for Educating Library and Archives Conservators,”
will explore a variety of approaches for the education of the next
generation of library and archives conservators.  The discussion will
include a brief overview of educational programs and consider lessons
learned from various educational approaches of the past.  Representatives
from several art conservation programs will describe their approaches to
educating students who wish to specialize in the conservation of materials
in libraries and archives.  Issues to be explored, with the participation
of the audience, include the key components of these programs, new
curricular directions in the United States and abroad, the emergence of
online and hybrid courses, the job market, and the continuing need for
internships and mentors.

The panelist will include Michele Cloonan, Graduate School of Library and
Information Science, Simmons College, Margaret Holben Ellis, New York
University and the Morgan Library and Museum, Lois Price, the University of
Delaware-Winterthur, and Judy Walsh, Buffalo State.

A Future For Book Conservation at the End of the Mechanical Age

The following is the text of the 2010 Mim Watson Book Arts Lecture given at the University of Texas, School of Information, on 3/11/2010.

The problem of survival for the hand-bound book in America is a difficult one. There are many economic and perhaps even sociological factors involved which threaten the existence of hand binding, making this field some what uncertain as an occupation. Chief among these, I believe, is the ever-growing attitude that the book (like so many other objects of everyday use) is something ephemeral: read it and give it or throw it away. This attitude combined with the very understandable desire on the part of the book buyer- you and me- not to pay more than he has paid in the past for his books, has forced publishers into putting less physical quality into their books. I don’t believe that the situation is entirely gloomy. As the machine-made object comes more and more to dominate our existence, there is a small but growing group of people who value having the work of the human hand re-enter their lives. Most of these people, however, struggle valiantly against very difficult odds—principally economic—to keep our great libraries from falling apart.”

-Paul Banks, 1960, “A Controversial view of the Extra Binder in America”

If you roughly substitute ‘conservation’ for ‘hand bound book’ in the above quote, it is striking, 50 years after these words were written, how little has changed, or perhaps we have come full circle. It wouldn’t surprise me to read observations like this on a book-arts related blog. Survival in this field has been a struggle for a while, and still is today. Perhaps the entire history of books, as well as bookbinding and conservation, has been in a constant state of crisis, punctuated by continuing revolutions: paper, printing, the rolling machine, book cloth, stamping presses, stereotyping, publishers bindings, paperbacks, Printing On Demand and now, eBooks. As we know, there is painfully direct correlation between the decline of the physical quality of the books, and number in which they were produced. Tonight, I will examine some of the cultural forces that are changing how we use books, look at how this is affecting book conservation, then speculate a bit about the future. I’m afraid, however, that I have more questions than predictions.

To begin, please indulge me the opportunity to share some recollections of my relationship with this conservation certificate program when it was at Columbia University. Chela Metzger, when delivering Syracuse University’s 2008 Brodsky lecture, spoke about the role of luck in finding ones path in conservation. “The lucky combination of skills, opportunity and the right historical moment,” she succinctly said. I couldn’t agree more. When I started in conservation, as a technician working on a two year grant in the Columbia University Conservation Lab in 1990, I had no idea how lucky I was. Terry Bellenger’s Rare Book School was there and almost every Thursday night there was a book arts lecture. Nicholas Pickwoad was the instructor for the conservation program, and would often give public presentations. It seemed the students were always hanging out in front of Butler Library – didn’t they ever have lab time? Chris Clarkson was consulting Deborah Evetts at the Morgan, and would often stop by. Later Fred Bearman became head of the CUL and I worked closely with him for four years on special collections material. There were lectures at the Grolier Club, classes at the Center for Book Arts, advanced workshops sponsored by the NY Chapter of the Guild of Bookworkers, lectures at NYU’s Institute of Fine Arts, and an informal monthly beer meeting for binders and conservators. At the time, I assumed all of this was par for the course for any conservation job.

But I was very lucky, I later realized, to be exposed to a tremendous variety of educational opportunities. While the Advanced Certificate in Conservation has graduated hundreds of students over the years, there are likely thousands, and possibly tens of thousands, who have benefited from it in many various, undocumented ways. I am grateful how the program has enhanced and formed my knowledge of conservation, and feel a bit sad about its current demise.

Books and libraries are rapidly changing. Many believe that books are shifting from functional devices for delivering textual information to museum objects. Circulating collections are being replaced by online resources. Many undergrads refuse to use physical books for research. Libraries have gotten rid of card catalogs and opened up coffee shops in their place. If books become functionless, or unavailable, it can only be a matter of time until we question why we are spending all of this money to store them—they are expensive space wasters. Conceptually, off-site storage seems to have gotten us used to not gaining instant access to books in a library. I believe the first bookless library is at Cushing Academy, in Massachusetts. The headmaster of the school, James Tracy, states,”When I look at books, I see an outdated technology, like scrolls before books.

If paper books are dead, are digital books ‘undead’? Aren’t these books like zombies – living eternally in a digital netherworld, occasionally assuming a temporal physical form, and if they die a replacement is quickly created? But whether books are dead, or undead, convenience may be what finally replaces the paper book. I often succumb to the convenience of screen reading, because it is good enough for certain purposes. Sometimes I will just look up a book on Google for a citation, rather than walk ten feet over to my bookshelf.

If libraries are changing, and the use of paper-based books is declining, where does this leave book conservators? Isn’t one of our main tasks to preserve and restore the functionality of books? I’ve seen a steady decline in the number of treatments preformed within institutions over the past 20 years, not that this is necessarily a bad thing. Maria Fredericks observed in a panel discussion at the Center for Book Arts last week, that robustness and the desire to treat a book so they would last ‘forever’ were overriding concerns behind treatment decisions in the 1980’s – this resulted in a lot of disbinding, washing, deacidifying and rebinding. Although the Florence flood is often cited as the birth of book conservation, in some ways the 1980’s marked the cutting of the cord. Conservation became differentiated from bookbinding and book restoration; funding was plentiful, the Graduate Certificate Program was set up at Columbia, and in many libraries the bindery was converted, often with resistance, into a conservation lab.

Perhaps, an unintended consequence of the need to establish book conservation as something visually and materially different than bookbinding or book restoration, was a somewhat identifiably ‘conservation’ look to many treatments preformed in the 1980’s. These books often look very much like the 1980’s, rather than the time period that the book is from. Similarly, forgeries, over time, look more like the time period they were made in than the time they proport to be from, although I’m not implying these treatments are forgeries! It would be an interesting project to visually trace how notions of a sympathetic treatment have changed over the years. The early 1990’s started a trend towards less invasive treatments and minimal intervention which continues to this day. But minimal intervention has an endpoint. One of the most difficult decisions a conservator has to make is deciding when a somewhat more aggressive treatment preserves, during storage and use, more information than is lost through the invasiveness of a particular treatment. It is a decision no one takes lightly, and is complicated by the unique nature, unknown material history and uncertain future use for each book.

Although treatments are guided by the philosophy of minimal intervention, many of us were initially attracted to conservation because of the hand skills and craft aspects. Ironically, most of us, by mid-career become permutated into an administrator. A colleague of mine at a large NYC institution said she only does one treatment about every three years. The opportunity to spend a lot of time carefully documenting, looking at and treating a spectacular, or sometimes an unspectacular book is deeply rewarding. I’m not trying to deny the importance of preventive conservation and a host of other competencies a conservator must possess, but acquiring treatment skills is perhaps the most time consuming, humbling and frustrating aspect of a conservators education. I’m sure many of us have been dazzled by the technical skill of the binders who made the books we work on, and just as often are dumbfounded by the amount of time lavished on poor quality materials. Learning craft based skills takes years and years of practice after the end of formal education. So if the need and frequency of treatments continues to decline, how will conservators get enough practice to learn, improve and maintain their hand skills? And how will it be possible to continue the transmission of these skills?

Without high-level craft skills, many collectors and dealers, and quite possibly curators, could look once again to binders or restorers to repair their books to the level of historic sympathy, tactile qualities and aesthetic integration they expect. Most discussions about the future of book conservation tend to ignore the fact that about half of all conservators are in private practice, and that most historic and artistic objects that get ‘fixed’ are not treated by conservators. In my own experience, I rarely compete with other conservators for jobs – the problem is competing with Billy Bobs’ Budget Book Bindery. Many of the somewhat invisible aspects of conservation – such as documentation, the quality of materials, research, professional development, adherence to AIC’s Code of Ethics – can add a lot of expense to a treatment, putting a conservator at a severe disadvantage economically when competing with a restorer for a job. When I started in private practice, I once gave a client duplicates of all documentation– he looked at them and said all those slides looked expensive, I’m not going to pay for any more of them. And the Antiques Roadshow style experts, who inform the public they can get a book tarted up for a minimal sum does’t help matters. All conservators need to continually explain, validate and explicate what they do, in a way the general public can understand and get involved with emotionally. There are many compelling narratives surrounding conservation that we can use to engage the public imagination. Otherwise, what we do, and our profession generally, will remain invisible. And if it is invisible, it will undervalued.

Book conservation is much closer to its craft origins than other conservation disciplines. This may be why book conservation education is often separated from other disciplines. It also may be why book conservators are sometimes suspiciously regarded by conservators in other specialities. Craft values and professional values can appear contradictory, if only superficially compared. No one expects a paintings conservator, for example, to also be a creative artist. But it is necessary for a book conservator to be a competent bookbinder, unless the societal role of books changes so dramatically that books are no longer needed to function. If books are no longer required to be functional objects – which I can’t really imagine, since a functioning book is the fundament to access – then there would no longer a need for a specialized book conservator. An object conservator, for example, can construct a box or cradle. One of the principal purposes of conservation, as envisioned by the American Institute for Conservation, is that objects should be preserved so that they can be enjoyed by future generations- if a functional object cannot function, how can it be enjoyed?

This is the linchpin for the future of the field. The primary question is not if a book conservator needs an MILS, it is deciding if the overall cultural expense of transmitting the specialized set of skills used to maintain the functionality of a book, while preserving its artifactual and historic integrity, is important. Unfortunately, given the corporate model that currently pervades our cultural institutions, we may just let the market decide. I desperately hope this does not happen.

The engineering, technological and material science skills to make a book function while preserving existing evidence, is unique to the domain of a book conservator. Book conservation works almost completely opposite to other types of conservation; it involves a constant refining and increasing specialization of knowledge and skills – learning more and more about less and less. I’ve worked with several paper conservators who lack a basic understanding of how a functioning page needs to be properly repaired. Without an understanding of book history, it is impossible to determine what is material evidence and what is damage. Without a knowledge of book structures, it is difficult to determine what is rare or unique, and should be preserved as is, as opposed to a common structure that should be made functional once again. Many treatment decisions are extraordinarily complex and impossible to quantify, given the large number of often unknown variables. Each book, and by extension the treatment decisions surrounding it, raises questions about the impossibility of conservation ever becoming entirely scientific, since all books and treatments are unique. And no treatment is truly reversible.

Because of the close relationship between bookbinding craft and book conservation, it is vital that conservators not only to preserve books, but learn, document, and transmit the collective craft knowledge of bookbinding as well. Working closely with someone more experienced is essential to learning and transmitting this knowledge. I doubt that anything can take the place of one-to-one transmission, as previously conceived of as an apprenticeship, or currently as internships. However, some new forms of technology – ironically the very forms that are challenging the role of paper books – can preserve types of information almost impossible to document textually. Hand tool woodworking provides an example of how craft skills were ‘rediscovered’ after almost a generation of neglect.

Woodworking with hand tools, which had declined precipitously starting with the power tool craze of the 1950’s, was rediscovered in the early 1970’s. Most of the rediscovery came from textually documented sources, attempting to reconstruct exemplars of workmanship, and possibly the most important aspect, learning to use and maintain specialized, high quality tools. It is a striking example of how a long lasting professional trade was rediscovered by amateurs. Today, hand tool woodworking is experiencing a renaissance, and there are more small, local tool makers fabricating higher quality of tools than have been available for a long time. Inherent within books themselves, both physically and textually, is some of the information necessary for the transmission of the craft of bookbinding. And this is part of the reason we conserve them. So there is some hope of a rediscovery of the skills, even if they disappear for a while.

Although the craft skills of bookbinding, and books themselves aren’t going to disappear tomorrow, next week, or even in our lifetimes, the use of books as the primary instrument for the vernacular transmission of textually based information is slowly ending. The book didn’t start out in vernacular culture, and it won’t end in it, either. The inexpensive, commonplace paper based book will have circumscribed a brief, yet explosive period of human history, roughly starting with the enlightenment and ending with the web.

The rapidity in which print culture is changing will affect us in varied and unpredictable ways. Take, for example, the shrinking of the newspaper industry. It is difficult to get good quality newsprint (I know, an oxymoron) to use as wastepaper. In a recent order I was sent a coated, shiny paper more like something used in magazines. I suspect as newspapers die out, this will become more of a problem. ACE Grinding, who regrinds my board shear blades, make most of their money from resharpening newspaper guillotine blades; I doubt they could survive on the 20 or so conservation labs in NYC who get their blades sharpened once a year. Will any library binderies exist in another 20 years? Will someone produce a bookcloth even remotely sympathetic with 19th century books? Quality sewing thread is difficult to find. Leather? Binders board? Leather dyes? High quality handmade paper and tissue is possibly the only bright spot. The difficulty in procuring quality materials is a constant battle; I won’t bore you with the details. One tip, however, if you ever find a material you really like, buy enough for the rest of your career if you can possibly afford it.

The use of books for accessing textually based information is gradually declining, and even apart from my obvious pecuniary interest as a book conservator, I feel a sense of loss. Part of it is similar to the loss of a companion, part of it nostalgia, but part of it must stem from a deep respect for the subtle sophistication of the codex structure itself: I can’t think of a comparable technology that has been so durable over the past 16 centuries. Fine bindings can be gorgeous, small press books beautiful, but books that are functioning, working documents are perhaps the most gorgeous, beautiful and meaningful of all. Collectively, they are the primary documents of human intellectual life.

Outside of the book world, there are more general cultural trends that are very troubling. We are at, or have just passed the end of the mechanical age. I’m frightened how much of my life and thoughts only exist digitally. I’m worried that ‘things’ will not last long enough to acquire use value. I’m concerned that the general public doesn’t have much interest, let alone comprehension, of how and why things work, what they are made of, and most importantly why their physical, material nature has meaning. And I’m troubled by the ease in which we discard a functional object which is no longer fashionable.

In the United States, the notion of fixing things is disappearing – has anyone here had a pair of shoes resoled recently? I have a collection of Popular Mechanics magazines from the 1950’s that not only contain articles about how to fix many common household items, but also how to build the power tools to accomplish these tasks! Most things now can’t be fixed; if it breaks, it is discarded or a large chunk of it swapped out and replaced. I rebuilt my VW bug engine when I was in high school, but the only thing I can do to my current vehicle is to change the windshield wipers. There will be no need to repair a book produced on the Espresso Book Machine when a new one can be printed cheaply on demand. If my kindle ebook reader fails, I just buy a new one; actually, I’d probably walk away from it and read the few books I’ve purchased on my computer. I suspect we will interact with objects for briefer and shorter periods of time, and know less and less about them. The oldest prevalent complex machine still in use, at least around the East Village of NYC, seems to be 1970’s era bicycles. I can only foresee a consistently more difficult battle to try and argue for the expensive preservation of the non-textual aspects of books, when most of the owners have no awareness or ability to interpret these elements.

Despite all of this gloom and doom, however, the codex seems to be continually reinvented. Lulu, Blurb and the scrapbooking phenomena form an interesting counterpoint to some of my aforementioned concerns. These new forms make me wonder if there is deeply ingrained need for the codex, and the demarcation and fixity that it exemplifies, and that we will always have some form of it. The satisfaction that children feel, for example, when turning their scribbles into a book is remarkable. And although I personally find scrapbooking mildly repugnant because of its extreme commercialization, limited opportunity for artistic expression and deskilling of the bookmaking process, if it gets people thinking and working in the book form, I can only encourage it. Keep in mind that scrapbooking is big; at the burned out city center of almost every Midwestern town, right next to the tattoo parlor is a store selling scrapbooking supplies.

Will books disappear in a manor similar to VCR’s, film cameras, vinyl records or CD’s? I’ve seen photography wiped out faster than I could have ever imagined. I was still buying new lenses for my 35mm rangefinder in 2001. By 2003 I was shooting a lot of digital for fun, and by 2006 was using it for documentation. CD’s replaced albums, but albums are now back as a retro technology with bands releasing new work on them. Cheap Trick even recently released an 8-track tape. But as film disappeared for snapshots and vernacular uses, earlier processes, like non-silver printing, are experiencing a resurgence for fine arts applications. I have a friend, in his late 20’s who is grinding his own lenses to make a 16 x 24 view camera. But photography is only about 185 years old–will the sixteen century history of the multi-quire codex affect the speed of its replacement? Will books enjoy an art-based retro-vogue? Or could they become a conjoined with the current fetish for the handmade, reversing some of Paul Banks concerns?

If books become rare, treasured objects once again, they could increase in market value, which could increase cost effectiveness of their conservation. But what type of book will be preserved? I wonder if a decrease in the use of books will be proportional to the increase in their sentimental value. Could this affect their need to function? In some ways, conservation is becoming like a third world economy – there are a very few upper class, high level treatments, and the masses environmentally stabilized or rehoused. If, far in the future, owning and accessing a book becomes a rare and exotic experience – a direct, physical, tangible link to an earlier time period and technology – I can only see their value increasing. After all, home viewing hasn’t replaced the unique experience of watching movies in public. And talkies didn’t replace the live theatre. But talkies did replace silent film, while color has yet to completely obsolete black and white. And on a pragmatic level, books in general, and specifically those from the handpress period, are currently seriously undervalued.

I doubt any of us think ‘books are dead’. However, the eroding funding to preserve the book is of grave concern. The days of rapid growth in conservation seem to be over. In NYC at least, there are fewer jobs than there were when I started in this field, as well as fewer grant funded positions, and more uncertainty about the future of existing positions. And there are more conservators. I do think there will be one growth area: private practice. Across all conservation specialties, almost 50% of us are in private practice. Some by design, some by default, some taking time to raise kids, some waiting for a real job, and some because they couldn’t keep a real job. There are many varieties of working in private practice; some of us own a business, some work freelance for others, some work part time in institutional labs, etc…. In my dealings with institutions, most archivists and curators are relatively familiar with the basics of environmental monitoring and preventative conservation. I suspect some more small labs will close and preservation duties are assumed by existing staff. I wonder if this could create opportunities for those in private practice for project and contract treatment work?

What might some of these treatments be? This is pure speculation, but I imagine some specific problems – pigment consolidation, inappropriately bound vellum text blocks, scrapbooks, split wood boards, iron gall ink, photographic albums, reversing leather dressings, brittle paper, modern first editions – will all be key areas for extensive future research and treatment. I also think there will be a need for treatments addressing aesthetic concerns; as books are read less and looked at more, presenting bindings and books as treasure objects will likely increase, as well as increasing the need for preserving their aesthetics. Additionally, there are tremendous opportunities and possibilities for new designs of inexpensive, attractive protective enclosures, as well as more versatile wedges and cradles for safe handling and exhibition, both for institutions and private collectors. There are many aspects of a standard, drop-spine box that are in need of improvement and redesign. I’m also sure there will be many as yet unidentified problems, some likely caused by our current practices, if history is any guide.

In conclusion, it is the history, tradition and even metaphoric associations, that will sustain, perhaps in a radically different form, the cultural importance of the codex. Fighting to preserve and interpret its importance is nothing new. The aesthetic, historic and artifactual values need to be constantly brought to the publics attention. This is perhaps the biggest current failure of conservation, as a whole– the lack of adequate outreach and public education. We spend far too much time bickering about internal affairs.

Figuring our how to construct a viable life in bookbinding or conservation has never been easy. The current economic and cultural climate makes things very difficult. So I applaud the conservation students in this audience for having the courage to commit to this weird, changing, undefined, but immensely rewarding field. Despite the challenges, I’ve never regretted joining it. And I hope all the conservation students get ‘lucky’ as you continue your own varied, unpredictable, yet undeniably exciting career paths.

John Townsend On Book Conservation Education

John Townsend has agreed to guest post, expanding the discussion about book conservation education.  John truly needs no introduction; simply put, he is a leader in our field. I’m thrilled he has written this piece–sharing stories about his education, providing philosophic reflections on the ontological status of the book and speculating about the future of book conservation education.

John Townsend  owns and operates Anonymous Bookbinder, a small hand-bookbinding and conservation workshop in upstate New York.  Most recently active in information technology, digital information access and related fields, he is also a librarian with a broad background and extensive experience in conservation and preservation, and he has been a bookbinder for over thirty years.

He began his professional career as head of the Conservation Lab at the New York Public Library after graduating in the first class of Columbia University’s Library Conservation and Preservation Program. He has also served as head of the NY State Conservation/Preservation Program, and as a preservation planning and evaluation consultant for SOLINET, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NEDCC), the National Library of Indonesia, the World Bank Global Environmental Facility, and for many other organizations and institutions.  Immediately prior to starting Anonymous Bookbinder he was executive director of the New York State Higher Education Initiative.

John writes:

I read Jeff’s recent blog post on US/UK education, etc. and thought it right on target, or “spot on” as they say over there.   And I think he pretty much captured my feeling about where we are all headed, but want to expand upon his thoughts and explore some other issues.

My Columbia University education was perhaps unique because I was headed for the conservator’s bench before I arrived, but ultimately came out on the administrator side of the program.  Columbia was my fifth year of graduate school, which is four too many for any sane person, so the administrative program made sense to me.  By then I had done the usual 70’s thing of picking up what I could when and where in terms of craft skills, including a vastly informative but functionally useless stint at a commercial bindery.  I already had a library degree as well, which meant that much of what happened academically on the conservator side of the Columbia program would have been redundant, at least as it was structured at the time—it has evolved considerably.  I really wanted a third year internship, but Paul Banks was not willing to consider it.  Before Columbia came along, I considered staying in DC for an internship with Frank Mowery & Karen Garlick at the Folger, but my DC teachers–Merrily Smith,a paper conservator and Newberry protege of Paul’s, along with Tom Albro and Robert Espinosa–urged me to at least do the administrator program for the credentials and then decide.  For once I took good advice when it was offered.

It turned out better than I expected since all of us (administrator and conservators students) did labs together with Gary Frost that first year and he was amenable to letting me pretty much live there.  He also let me live for a while in his apartment the following summer while he was away and I was waiting for a job, and he left me a key to the lab so I could use it whenever I wanted, which was all the time.  Lynn Jones and I were also working for the Columbia Library part time on an NEH preservation project encapsulating brittle books–pre-Minter welder.  The NYPL job followed that, which was pretty much the only book conservation job available anywhere at the time, although more jobs were quickly created.

So, I was extremely lucky in my pre-Columbia experience and what I managed to squeeze out of Paul and Gary while there.  As far as I know, no other student in the administrator program managed anything quite like it.

My thoughts on the state of things now and the future education of conservators are obviously colored by all this, as well as by my time at NYPL and my subsequent time “on the dark side” (the IT and digital side) as George Farr used to call it.  Jeff is correct, I think, in saying that the shift in book conservation education mirrors the change in the social role of books.  I remember very clearly pondering long and hard about the book question when NYPL was preparing for the transition to its online catalog.  Online catalogs had been around for a good while by then, but it was also at the time that the personal computer was taking off and many of us were beginning to see where the creation, storage and means of accessing information were headed. It was always clear to me (or so I thought) that the book (codex) would be around for a very long time, but I was also certain that this was separate from the question of how we access information.  Not “separated by necessity”, but that they could be separated and were on the verge of being separated in practice.  I was also reading–and ultimately becoming disgusted with–Heidegger on the question of technology at the time, which is probably neither here nor there, but it seemed relevant at the time.

Just before going to Columbia I had read E. Eisenstein’s “The Printing Press as an Agent of Change.”  I found it tedious in the extreme, but in terms of the social role of the book she is dead right, and what she says applies equally well to the rise of digital information.  Specifically, she says that the advent of the printing press changed forever the way we managed the collection, dissemination, standardization, organization, and preservation of information.  Any success I had on “the dark side” came from understanding that this is precisely where we stood with the digital revolution–it was going to change exactly these same things, and change them as fundamentally and profoundly as had the printing press.

So where does that leave the book and book conservation?  I believe the codex remains a viable and extremely useful technology, bastardized though it is in its current incarnation, and that it is likely to persist in common use for a very long time, even if books no longer serve as the primary vehicles for the collection, dissemination, standardization, organization, and preservation of information. I don’t believe they have ceased these functions yet, and I’m not sure I will live to see it, but it is possible to conceive of.  And possibly the nagging problems of digital preservation and access will someday be resolved.  If and when that happens I also believe that collections of books (codices) will take on a new value and the need, the desire and cultural urge to preserve them can only increase.  This is a still nascent thought and I’m not sure where it will end up, but for now it suggests to me a “museum” function, where books are preserved as artifacts but—just as in a well run “special collection” in a library–with an acknowledgment that the value of the codex cannot be isolated from its functional aspects.  That is, the codex is not a static entity–physically or intellectually–and it must be used/useful/useable in some way in order to maintain its value.  Otherwise it is simply an “object” taking up space and collecting dust.

If this imagined “museum function” for collections of books–or something like it–does come about, then the role of the book conservator may perhaps become even more similar to the role of the museum conservator.  But I hope not–there is no need for a “book” conservator if the book becomes an object only and it functional aspects embalmed or ignored.

To reply directly to one of the questions Jeff raised, the preservation of the craft skills of bookbinding must–absolutely–be preserved as an essential part of the training of a book conservator–even including how to cut paper with scissors (I loved that!).  I have often thought that too much effort has gone into trying to make book conservators like their art conservator counterparts.  I think it was a matter of prestige more than anything, and may have been necessary in its time to legitimize and establish the profession, but I think in some ways it exacerbated the loss of what little remained of the craft/trade bookbinding skills the US.  There wasn’t a lot left by the 70’s when I was first seeking it out (or not much I could get to).  The tradition and skills here were never as robust as in the UK and Germany, but much of what there was we let slip away while we were focused on “higher” learning.  This is not to say that book conservators should not be trained as thoroughly as art conservators–they should–but they should also be trained as bookbinders.  If the “museum function” I think I foresee for book collections does emerge, then such training will be essential.

Alas, with our tradition (such as it was) gone and with the UK and German traditional craft beginning to fade–albeit with a very lively and vital heritage still in evidence– the question of how to preserve and transmit craft skills is just as troublesome now as it was to me in the 70’s.

I was Camberwell-bound before I decided to first get library school behind me and take advantage of what I could find in DC.  Ironically, I would probably be in the same position if I were starting from the same place today, although I expect I’d give North Bennet Street School or American Academy of Bookbinding a try before heading overseas.  There are certainly more opportunities for study in the US now, but for the most part they are even further removed for the tradition of craft skills–notable exceptions notwithstanding, including the AAB and most anything else Don Etherington is associated with.  Like Jeff mentioned in the previous post, I am afraid  too many of these skills have gotten away from us before we have figured out how to preserve them.  So recovering these skills is perhaps all we can hope for–digging them out of old books, out of old-timers, and in many cases reinventing them.  And, of course, passing them on in whatever venue presents itself–in writing, by demonstration–whatever (reality show, perhaps?!).

I am somewhat surprised that I have come to think that the much maligned workshop will prove to be the most durable vehicle for transmitting key aspects of the craft.   Many of the brickbats hurled at resumes laden with workshop-only experience are, I think, really intended to signal that workshops do not equal skill or proficiency.  Of course they don’t–only repetition and experience and some natural ability can build skill.  But as a vehicle for delivering information about a craft, workshops work exceeding well. Better, I expect than the old apprenticeship where the first two years were spent doing nothing but sweeping and fetching for the guy who only wanted to make sure you were as miserable as he was when he was doing it.  And other than workshops, what else do we have?

Unrelated to bookbinding, I learned timber-framing in a one week workshop them managed to gain some measure of skill when I used that information to put up a shop building at our home site, and went on to become a fairly accomplished framer (if I do say so) while building a house which still stands and where I still live almost 20 years later.  It’s also solar powered—same drill: one week workshop, to trial photovoltaic system in the shop, to fully functional system in the house.

I do not believe it is reasonable to assume that bookbinding is any more complex, or that the basic skill set cannot also be acquired in a similar manner.  And if book conservator training programs as we have known since the 80’s go away, then what choices do we have?   The UK may be good for a while (a long while I expect), and NBSS, AAB and the like will probably be viable sources of conservation training for a while longer, although even now they seem mainly supported by the bookbinding/ book arts community.

But if the cause of the demise of training is an underlying social change in the collection, dissemination, standardization, organization and preservation of information, then the tradition out of which book conservation grew will become more and more remote, and the skills more rarefied.  The transmission of the craft will then have to rely on the desire and the urge of those who know– and I mean “those who know” (really know) not just those who are fascinated and think they know–it will rely on their willingness to pass on what they know to the few who are interested and willing to commit to learning it.  An ancient model, to be sure, but perhaps the only thing that has ever really worked for the parts of what we do that are dependent on craft.

So the old workshop, seminar, “intensive,” or whatever they are called seems to me the most likely way to insure that the knowledge and the craft that needs to persist, will persist, and that as a result the codex–however unusual it becomes–will also persist as a functional object.

Of course I am probably wrong about everything–I would be surprised if it were otherwise–but it is not possible to think about such things without speculating once in a while about what they mean and where we are headed.  Perhaps the next time I reflect upon them, I will think differently.  Or not.

John Townsend

Anonymous Bookbinder

Sharon Springs, NY

www.anonymousbookbinder.com